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Human ageing

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases  Enzymes How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction Enzymes are biological catalysts , catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts, positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negative catalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins ,made up of long chains of amino acids .Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist Eduard Buchner , he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discovery of cell-free fermentation . He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body ( these number may increase because every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical r

WHAT IS CORONA VIRUS?


What-is-corona-virus?
Corona virus

Dear friends ,today the world is under a dangerous pandemic the COVID-19 so-many people dying word wide,so I think it is necessary to write on corona virus,how ever our regular subject remain 'human aging'
Before going the details of corona virus we should know what is viruses,

What is virus?

In1886 Adolf mayor,a German agricultural chemist who first described about a disease,the tobacco mosaic disease,mosaic like appearance on leafs of tobacco plant.later Martinus Beijerich given the name Virus,Virus is a latin word,means a poisonous subsance                                       
Viruses are generally considered as non living things, but they active when enter a host cell.they consist of genetical codes(the RNA or DNA)body is covered  by a protein coat,which is known as. Capsids,in some virus especially in the case of novel corona virus the capsid is covered by two layers of lipids,which is known as envelop.viruses cannot multiply themself,they must enter living cell. When they Come out from a living cell they become inactive,this inactive virus is called as virion,this is responsible for infection.if it did n't get a host cell in certain time period the lipid coating and capsid begins to degrade,then it cannot attach to the host cell

Which are the corona viruses that attacked human?

Corona virus SARS-CoV(sever acute syndrome) is identified in southern China in 2003,MERS-CoV(Middle East respiratory syndrome)identified in Soudi Arabia in 2012,and this is the third one SARS-CoV2,the causativ agent of  the deseas COVID-19 and this virus also fist identified in China in 2019.

How long survive corona virus outside the host cell?

Novel corona virus can survive3 days on stainless steel surfaces and plastic surfaces,it can live on air for hours,one day on card boards and four hour on copper.the virus survive longer time at lower temperature,higher humidity and non porous surfaces like stainless steel.


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Role of protein on ageing

Protein structure  Role of protein on aging  Protein which controls the length of telomere are telomerase and a protein complex known as shelterin.a new study by Scripps Reserch Institute (TSRI) discovered a new protein named as TZAP (telomeric zinc associated protein)which decrease the length of telomeres by trimming,telomere is the clock of a biological cell,if it's length is too short the cell cannot multiply,a human cell can divide maximum 50 times,if it increase more, our life span may increase considerably. Certain proteins undergo oxidisation which are known to be associated with ageing and some age related diseases,when people turn about 80 approximately half of the bady proteins are damaged due to oxidation,the oxidation occurs because of random chemical degradation,that are associated with convention of food particles to enregy( metabolism) . Protein's misfoldings are another reason for ageing,when native proteins are synthesised in our cells,which i

Why we are getting old?

Why we are getting old? The answer is simple,the 'errors'.The errors that happening during cell multiplication and by the influences of external factors. Somany  changes happens in DNA every year,most important one is the shortening of telomeres. A telomere is the tail end of chromosomes.  The free radical theory of -ageing,  which devolved in1950 says that  the reactive oxygen  species(ROS)   produced during mitochondrial functions react with their DNA (mtDNA)  and other cell organelles, makes sever damage and declined mitochondrial functions that leads us to aging. ROS is produced when mitochondria make energy from food particles,when we eat more the mitochondria produce more energy and more ROS also evolved as by product. So having a comparatively limited amount of diet and  anti oxidant rich food,such as green vegetables fruits etc can increase life span.  In the year 1961 an American scientist L.Hayflick discovered that human cells have limited capacity to divide