Corona virus

Dear friends ,today the world is under a dangerous pandemic the COVID-19 so-many people dying word wide,so I think it is necessary to write on corona virus,how ever our regular subject remain 'human aging'
Before going the details of corona virus we should know what is viruses,

What is virus?

In1886 Adolf mayor,a German agricultural chemist who first described about a disease,the tobacco mosaic disease,mosaic like appearance on leafs of tobacco plant.later Martinus Beijerich given the name Virus,Virus is a latin word,means a poisonous subsance                                       
Viruses are generally considered as non living things, but they active when enter a host cell.they consist of genetical codes(the RNA or DNA)body is covered  by a protein coat,which is known as. Capsids,in some virus especially in the case of novel corona virus the capsid is covered by two layers of lipids,which is known as envelop.viruses cannot multiply themself,they must enter living cell. When they Come out from a living cell they become inactive,this inactive virus is called as virion,this is responsible for infection.if it did n't get a host cell in certain time period the lipid coating and capsid begins to degrade,then it cannot attach to the host cell

Which are the corona viruses that attacked human?

Corona virus SARS-CoV(sever acute syndrome) is identified in southern China in 2003,MERS-CoV(Middle East respiratory syndrome)identified in Soudi Arabia in 2012,and this is the third one SARS-CoV2,the causativ agent of  the deseas COVID-19 and this virus also fist identified in China in 2019.

How long survive corona virus outside the host cell?

Novel corona virus can survive3 days on stainless steel surfaces and plastic surfaces,it can live on air for hours,one day on card boards and four hour on copper.the virus survive longer time at lower temperature,higher humidity and non porous surfaces like stainless steel.

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What is protein?

What is protein?

Protein is the basic components of living cells,it made of carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen and one or more chain of amino acids.Like carbohydrate and fats protein is a macro nutrient it is commonly available in animal products,eggs, meat, milk,yoghurt etc,it also available in beens, nuts,legumes etc.Proteins makeup 15 % of a person's body weight

 According to their structure there are three types of proteins are there,they are fibrous, globular,and membrane.Fibrous proteins forms muscle fibre,bones,connetive tissues and tendons,eg;actin,myosin,karatin.Globular protein is water soluble,they have so many functions in our body such as transporting,catalysing,and regulating ,eg; albumin,alphaglobin,hemoglobin etc.

 According to their functions proteins are catagarised to eight groups,they are hormones, defensive proteins, enzymatic proteins,transport proteins,structural proteins,storage proteins,receptor proteins and contractile proteins.

Hormones: are protein based secretion of endocrine glands,which affect curtain cells in our body,those cells have specific receptor to accommodate proteins,on which the hormones attach them self.such cells are known as target cells.From hormone the cell got signals. For example insulin secreted by pancreas used to control sugar level

Defensive proteins: antibodies the important part of our immune system is a defensive protein which is produced in white blood cells(WBC) attack foreign bodies such as bacteria,virus etc that enter in our body and make them inactive.

Enzymatic hormones: which accelerate metabolic processes in our body,facilitate in liver function direction,glycogen convertion etc

Transport protein: these protein carries vital materials to cells ,for example hemoglobin carries oxygen from lungs and distribute to tissues 

Structural protein: Collagen,karatin and elastin are structural protein,collagen forms the collective frame work of our muscles,skin,bones and cartilages.karatin is the structural component of hair,teath,nails and skin etc

Storage protein: these proteins are storing meral ions,eg; iron,potassium etc.Iron storage in R.B.C(red blood cells) is controlled by a storage protein called ferritin.Ovalbumin and casein also examples of storage proteteins.

Receptor proteins: it controls the the materials that enter and leaves the cell, it always located in outer part of a cell,some of the receptors activate enzymes and other used to stimulate endocrine glands to produce epinephrine and insulin.

Contractile protein: these are muscle regulates,which regulate srength and speed of the muscles on our body including heart muscles eg actin,myocin

Hey friends,l think you understand what is protein and its importants in living organism, one more thing, the researchers found that protein foldings are decreasing when we get old. ahttps://cellinsight.blogspot.com/2020/03/why-we-are-getting-old.html 


Protein rich food-1
Protein rich food-2

Why we are getting old?


Why we are getting old?

The answer is simple,the 'errors'.The errors that happening during cell multiplication and by the influences of external factors. So many  changes happens in DNA every year,most important one is the shortening of telomeres. A telomere is the tail end of chromosomes. The free radical theory of -ageing, which devolved in1950 says that the reactive oxygen species(ROS)  produced during mitochondrial functions react with their DNA (mtDNA)  and other cell organelles, makes sever damage and declined mitochondrial functions that leads us to aging. ROS is produced when mitochondria make energy from food particles,when we eat more the mitochondria produce more energy and more ROS also evolved as by product. So having a comparatively limited amount of diet and  anti oxidant rich food,such as green vegetables fruits etc can increase life span. 
Why we are getting old?
Old age

In the year 1961 an American scientist L.Hayflick discovered that human cells have limited capacity to divide. Human cells are not able to divide again after 50 cell divisions,this condition is called Hayflick limit. The cells gradually lose it's biological efficiency and said to be aged. Later A.M olovnikov proposed the telomere theory of aging(telomeres are the tail end of chromosomes).The theory says that,after each cell division the length of telomeres become shorter and shorter. When it is too short the cell cannot divide any more. When we born the the length of telomere in our WBC(white blood cells) can be measured 8000 base pairs and when we become elder the length will be only 1500 base pairs.
According to neuro endocrine theory, age changes happened in hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid glands or the combined actions of these glands. decreased production of certain hormones and functional decline of neurons are said to to be the main reason for aging.

Thymus,a very important endocrine gland,start to shrink in early teen age and gradually replaced by thick fatty tissue, by a process called involution, thymas is a very important organ in human body,which is a lymphoid organ as well as an endocrine gland. Thymus secrete thymopoitn, thymulin, thymosin etc,and small amount of melatonin and insulin. T cells are trained and matured in thymus,generally 3 types of T cells are there,they are cytotoxic helper and regulatory types T-cells protect us from infections,immune disorders, and cancer like diseases. why we losing such an important organ in our early life? is it pre programmed?

Cells committed suicide when they are infected with viruses or its DNA damaged and cannot be repaired, the process is known as apoptosis.
We know after 65 our immune system became weak,we don't have enough T cells to fight and eliminate viruses and other pathogens so apoptosis rate may increase in our old age.

Our cells also subjected to DNA methylation,this involve adding a methyl group (a carbon and three hydrogen atoms), to the area of DNA which sets this area of gene to off mode,then particular function will not work,if examine how much DNA is methylated then we can estimated the biological age. Some genes also hyper methylated with age.

Environmental damage to DNAs, proteins and fats, are another reason for aging. After the age of 20 human produces 1% less collagen in the sin each year,deficiency of collagen caused the skin become more brittle. 80% of skin wrinkling is the result of UV radiation from the sunlight

In the case of a well known human disease,Werner's syndrome, a mutated gene causes people older in their teen age,the mutated gene supposed to be involved in DNA maintain function


We have lot of theories and scientific inventions on aging,but exact reason of aging is not yet understood. Thousand of chemical reactions are taken place inside our body and each reaction is perfectly catalyzed by different biological enzymes and every day thousand of products and byproducts are produced. Are these byproducts harm ful to us?how they eliminated? very complicated. Today science is well developed in all Fields, but not yet understood  the exact reason for 'why we are getting old'? l hope  soon we will found the cause and we will dicide how long we have to live in this beautiful world.


Human ageing

Old man+O2 = Young man

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