Old man+O2 = Young man

Old man+O2 = Young man

Cellinsight.online Everything about human ageing and related diseases

Old man+O2=young man

     " Old man+O2=Young man" don't laugh I am not kidding you, this is the result of a new research conducted by Scientists from Tele Aviv University and Shamir Medical Center in Israel recently, and published in Aging magazine on 18th november 2020. The scientists claimed that they have managed to reverse the Aging.

The scientists used Hyperbaric Oxygen chamber for conducting this experiment. The treatment inside the hyperbaric oxygen chamber is known as hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT). They selected 35 people who where above 64 years of age. Pure oxygen supplied to them inside the chamber, at various atmospheric pressure, They were treated inside the chamber for 90 minutes a day and five days a week, the treatment continued for 3 months. The result was mind blowing, the researchers found that the cellular level changes of the participants were equivalent to how they where at 25 years back. The length of telomeres increased by 20-38% depending on different types of cells in the body. The senescence cells were also reduced 11-37%. Both Telomere shortening  and accumulation of Senescence cells are said to be two major Hall marks of Aging.


What is Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT) ?.

Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy is a special type of treatment commonly used to treat many conditions such as carbon dioxide poisoning, healing of diabetic foot wounds,infection and injuries of bones, injuries to skin or soft tissues etc. Inside the chamber a patient is under an increased atmospheric pressure, where he can breath pure oxygen at 1.5-3,time higher than normal atmospheric pressure. When  received adequate amount of oxygen throughout the body, the body uses its own natural power to  promote healing process. HBOT can neutralise the toxins produced by certain bacteria, and also it increase the ability of WBC (white blood cell) to find and destroy foreign bodies. Also the therapy is useful for the formation of new skin cells, formation of new connective tissues, new blood vessels, production of vascular endothelial growth factor etc.

Telomeres

 Telomeres are the tail end  of chromosome, it act as a protective cap. In each cell division Telomeres are unable to be fully copied, so the Telomeres become shorter and shorter. In human being a cell can divided only 50 times before the Telomere become too short.

Senescence

When Telomere become too short a cell cannot divided any more,it enter the state of senescence. With increasing age,there is an accumulation of senescence cells in our body. These cells are said to be aged but they are metabolically active. It is difficult to repair a defective tissue if there is a large number of senescence cells are present.

Conclusion


"Aging is yet another disease" many scientists are still believing this.  I think Israeli scientists proved that the deficiency of Oxygen is the main reason for this disease by their HBOT experiment. What they did, they allowed the selected people to breath oxygen 1.5_3 times higher than normal pressure for some time period, that's all. Then they observed that the length of telomeres increased in each cell including senescence cells. You know if you removed all senescence cells from your body,  that itself will increase your life expectancy considerably. 

Here a common question is arising, why our body cells are not getting sufficient Oxygen from our normal breath ?, I think any one or more of following reasons should be behind it,
1. May be the atmospheric O2 level is not            enough because of pollution,deforestation      etc
2. May be our lungs are not able to absorb          enough Oxygen when we breath 
3. May be Our blood circulation is not                   enough to reach every tissues and cells
4.   May be our hemoglobin level is not              enough to transport O2 to each and                  every  part of the body.

      What is your opinion? Let me know.

      I hope the researchers find it very soon.
           
www.cellinsigt.online






Apoptosis and Necrosis, are they acceletate aging?

Cellinsight.online Everything about human ageing and related diseases

Apoptosis and necrosis are they accelerate aging?

apoptosis

Apoptosis is programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a Greek word means "falling off".In a multicellular organism if cells are no longer needed,or it's DNA damaged and cannot be repaired,then the cells commits suicide by a process called programmed cell death or the Apoptosis. In human beings billions of cells die in bone marrow and intestine every hour .since 19th century scientists noticed and described about apoptosis but a clear definition was given by John Foxton Kerr at the university of Queensland in 1972.Later Hovitz,Sydney Brenner,and John E Samson identified the genes involved in apoptosis. In 2002  they got Nobel prize in medicine 
Apoptosis and Necrosis, are they acceletate  aging?
Apoptosis and Necrosis


In our body,cells are produced by cell multiplication (mitosis) and the apoptosis is used to the destruction of cells. Around 100,000 cells are produced in our body per second and approximately same number of cells die by apoptosis. Apoptosis generally used during embryonic stage to eliminate unwanted cells, for example the cells between fingers and toes are removed by apoptosis in embryonic stage. Half of  the neurons that are created initially will die in later stages when adult brain is formed. Initiation of Apoptosis and it's completion is within 2-3 hours, within this time period the cells also removed,so the researchers facing challenges to study much about this process

Apoptosis is initiated by caspases. Caspases are any of the  family of  intra cellular proteases , which are synthesized inside the cells. They are present in the cell as inactive precursors or procaspases. During apoptosis these inactive procaspases or precursors activated by proteolytic cleavage by another member of caspase family. There are two types of caspases,the initiator caspases and the effector caspases, the initiator caspases are caspase 2,8,9,10,11,12 and effector caspases are caspase 3,6,7. Internal and external stimuli can trigger apoptosis. There is two well known apoptosis pathways which are the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are doing the same work that activate the effector capsases (caspase 3,6,7).The only difference is that caspapase 9 used to activate effector caspase in intrinsic and caspase 8, used in extrinsic pathway.

Extrinsic pathway initiated when death inducing signalling complex formed in the cell surface. These formation happened when death ligard bonds with death receptors. Later the signalling complex force to cleave  procaspase 8 and caspase 8 released to cystol. It act on effector caspases.

During apoptosis a cell undergone a series of changes,such as cell shrinkage, cytoplasm became dense,chromatin condensation (pyknosis),and DNA fragmentation (karyorrhexis).Irregular buds(blebbing) can be noticed on cell membrane, later membrane protrusions and finally the cell breaks apart into apoptosis bodies and adjacent phagocytic cells engulfed it

Necrosis

Necrosis is unplanned cell death,it may be due to lack of blood supply, infection, trauma,poison or any other reason. Necrosis starts with cell swelling,chromatin materials gets digested,loss of plasma membrane integrity, cell organelles broken down completely and finally, the cell lyses.

Aging and apoptosis

During aging it is noted that the size of muscular fibers are reduced and complete loss of some fibers. This condition his called sarcopenia. It is assumed that abnormal signaling of apoptosis and and mitochondrial dysfunction are the reason behind it,the exact reason remain obscure.
Experiment conducted on old rat shows  that significant increase in cell death,bcl-2 and capsase-3 are detected in extrinsic tongue muscles,and reduction in muscle fiber number. Scientists observed that old mitochondria produced more oxidant than energy 

Aging and necrosis


Old mitochondria produce more oxidants than energy(ATP). Apoptosis is an energy depend mechanism,because of the deficiency of ATP in olden age apoptosis decreased and the necrosis mechanism increased. we know that necrosis not need any external energy. The bad effect of necrosis is that it release the product of cell death in an uncontrolled way in to the intracellular space,and resulting wwp to the surrounding tissues.

Conclusion

In order to maintain physiological, immunological, and biochemical functions effectively in our body, creation of new cells and destruction of old and damaged cells are necessary. Apoptosis and Necrosis are involved in this purpose, but unregulated Apoptosis can hurt the entire body. In old age apoptosis causes several damage to brain, intestine,  cardiovascular systems, prostate gland immune system etc. Increased programmed cell death has been observed in certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease ,Parkinson's disease,etc. many neural cells might die because of it's action, unfortunately neural cells cannot undergo cell division( mitosis) .We don't have much knowledge about the action of programmed cell death(PCD) in old age, in the mean time a number of researches going on, and this is an excellent subject for new researchers and one who looking for a Nobel prize.






                    Cellinsight.online


Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases 

Enzymes

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases
How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction



Enzymes are biological catalysts, catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts,positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negative catalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins,made up of long chains of amino acids.Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist Eduard Buchner, he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discovery of cell-free fermentation. He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body (these number may increase because every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical reaction.In 1980 Sidney Altman and Thomas R.Cech found that some RNAs have the ability to catalyze specific bio chemical reactions,these RNAs are called Ribozymes.Ribozymes are made up of nucleic acids not proteins.Both Sidney Altman and Thomas R.Cech were professors of Yale University(USA) and University of Colorado(USA) respectively,they were jointly awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry in the year 1989.So it is cleared that thre are some other biological catalysts also present in our body other than protein based enzymes

.

Digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes are produced by the organs of our digestive system.Amylase and lingual lipase present in saliva, trypsine, pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase are the secretion of pacrease, Deoxynuclease and deoxyribonuclease also produced in pacrease.pepsin produced in the stomach
Amylase: breaks down large starch molecules into smaller sugar molecules.
Lipase: breaks lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
Protease: breaks down proteins in to amino acids.
Trypsine : also breaks down protein
Lactase:(found in small intestine) breaks lactose, the milk sugar into glucose and galactose .
Deoxyribonuclease and Ribonuclease helps to breaks bonds in nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA


Metabolic enzymes

Convertion of food particles to energy,elimination of nitrogenous wastes and convertion of food to building blocks these very important to a living organism. These process are called metabolism , the word 'metabolism' is came from a Greek word metabole means change.A number of enzymes participate in metabolic processes in our body.The enzymes are included in different classes,such as
Oxydoreductases,dehydrogenases,kinases,lyases,lipoxygenases etc.


Enzymatic process

Active site is a specific region of enzyme,substrate binds to that specific region and form enzyme substrate complex,the substrate is then combined with another molecule or broken down to form enzyme product complex,finally enzyme releases the product and return to its original shape and size.These actions are quick,the speed of the reaction is based on turnover number of enzyme.The
turnover number is the number of substrate molecules converted by one molecule of enzyme per second (when enough substrate molecules are present).The turn over number starting from 0.5 to 600000, defferent  enzyme has different turn over numbers.Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH values, an optimum temperature and optimum pH value are necessary for maximum activity,
The optimum temperature is around 98.6 Fahrenheit and most of the enzyme's optimum pH is nearly neutral but pepsin a digestive enzyme work in high aciditic conditions ,its optimum pH value is 2.


Role of enzymes on aging

We know that enzymes are so important,without enzyme no energy no metabolism and even know life.But scientists discovered some adverse effect of enzymes that lead us early aging,immune disorders and diseases like cancer. some examples are given below,


* Thymus a tiny gland,( lies in the chest between lungs and behind sternum) plays an important role in our immune system. It produced some hormones such as melatonine,insuline etc also act as a class room for T cells.T cells are produced in the born marrow but they mature in thymus,there they are trained to recognize antigen.T 
cells protect us from infections , immune disorders, cancer etc.After puberty stage thymus start to shrink slowly and replaced by fatty tissue, this process is called involution, Afer the age of 65 there a scarcity of T cells in our body. some scientists are on the view that thimus involution may be a form of programmed aging.
It is noted that deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension by 30%.What is PAPPA?,pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) is a protein based enzyme that controls the availability of local insuline-like growth factor(IGF).IGF is required for embryonic and post natal growth.A reduced IGF signaling can increase the life span.A study conducted by Dr.AbbĂ© de vellego(University of Pittsburgh school of medicine) and his team on a mouse Shows that thymus gland of the mouse remain intact through out life after deleted the enzyme PAPPA.This discovery give us a little hope that we can restore the functions of thymus in our entire life.

** Professor Shinji Kamada and Taiki Nagamo (Kobe university research team) discovered that certain enzymes such as DAO promote cellular senencese. D-Amino Acid Oxidise (DAO) is an enzyme that catalyse the oxidisation of D-amino acid to amino acid,but at the same time ROS(Reactive Oxygen Species) produced as a by product,the ROS causes DNA damage,cellular senescence(complete arrest of cell growth) and aging.

*** Alzheimer's disease is considered as a hereditary disease, which slowly destroy memory and thinking skill.Beta amyloid plaque is building on and around neurons in brain .A team of reserchers from Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have found that ,the beta amyloid peptide deposits can be reversible by depleting an enzyme BASE1.This Enzyme helping to form beta amyloid peptide .The test was conducted in the brain of mice with Alzheimer's disease.

Telomere theory of aging

Telomere theory of aging
Telomere theory of aging was proposed by a Russian scientist A.M.Olovnikov in the year 1971.In the year 1961,an american scientist L.Hayflick  discovered that cultured human cells can only divide up to 50 times.On the basis of this discovery and it's data A.M olovnikov studied more and proposed the telomere theory of aging. According to the theory,when the telomeres (tail end of  chromosome) become too short the cells lose their ability to divide,gradually it lose its efficiency and become aged.After each and every cell division telomeres are unable to be fully copied,therefore they become shorter and shorter.The telomere theory was fully confirmed when an enzyme called telomerase was discovered in 1984,telomerase can maintain the length of telomeres in cancer cells and germ cells,these cells are devoid of aging and they are immortal.The telomere theory of aging got more popularity when three geneticists,Elisabeth Blackburn,Carol Greider and Jack Szostak got Nobel prize in the year 2009 for Physiology or medicine.Their work was based on telomers and telomerase enzyme, Elizabeth Black burn discovered that telomers have a peculiar DNA,she and Jack Szostak proved that the DNA present in telomers prevent chromosome from being brocken drown when cell divides in the year 1982,Elizabeth Black burn and Carol Greider discovered the enzyme telomerase in 1984.

Telomere theory of aging
Location of telomere

TELOMERE

 Telomeres are the tail ends of chromosomes,working as protective cap.They consist of same sequence of bases.Generally there are four bases adinine,guanine,thymine and cytosine in human being the sequence is TTAGGG(thymine-thymine-adinine-guanine-guanine-guanine),this sequence repeated over and over.This sequence is repeated approximately 2500-3000 times and can reach up to 11000-15000 base pairs.Base sequence differs in different animals,for examble In the case of Bombix mori(insect) the base sequence is TTAGG,ascaris(round worm) the sequence is TTAGGC,Plasmodium(Protozoa) the sequence is TTAGGG(T/C), Paramesium(Protozoa)the base sequence is TTGGG(T/G) and so on.In human telomeres are consisted of TTAGGG sequence of bases,here I am talking about one strand only,what about the other strand?,as we know thymine (T) always pairs with adenine(A),and guanine(G) with cytosine (C) so if TTAGGG sequence is on one strand the other strand sequence will be AATCCC,so one section is made up of six base pairs.
It is noted that the length of telomer in WBC (white blood cells) of newborn babies is 8000 base pairs approx ,but in adult the data is 3000 base pairs and in elderly people it will be 1500.Each time cell divide telomere loses 30 to 200 base pairs.Telomere do not shorten in heart muscles cells,because it do not divide continually .

Cell division

All the living organisms that start their life with a single cell.For growth and reproduction, the cell divion is necessary,each parent cell is divides in to two and later, these cells will divide again and this process will continue. There are two types of cell divisions occurs in our body, mitosis and meiosis.The mitosis is the common type which is the process of making new cells in our body,the other one meiosis which makes egg cells and sperm cells.The mitosis cell division is a very critical process, during this the parent cell split in to two identical daughter cells and this process is controlled by a number of genes,eventhough he length of telomeres decreased after each cell division.The other one the meiosis cell division reduces chromasome number by half( 46 to 23),unlike mitosis the end product of meiosis is four daughter cells with 23 chromosomes) these daughter cells should be sperm cells or egg cells.

Medicine available to increase life span
many medicine are available at online for altering telomere's length. For example, TA65®.  This is a patented natural herbal product.The company   Claims "this compound can help to maintain the length of  telomers by activating telomerase enzyme.It can  slow down and possibly,reverse aging". Another one human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT) which is used to diminish telomer's length,you may wonder why should one diminishes telomer's length?, well this is an effective medicicine fort cancer,especially for tumors,you know cancer cells are able to produce excess telomerase so the length of telomere never reduced,they are immortal.hTERT used to diminish telomer's length, and therefore the cells become inactive. This type of medicines manufactured a number of companies in different names and different forms.
Conclusion
Telomere theory of aging is a most popular theory of aging.It is proved that after each and every cell division the length of telomere decreases,it is also noted that telomere shortening is different for every one,when we try to measure,for some people you can see the difference in 3 years and some others it can notice in 5 years depend on health status,stress reduction and healthy habits can help to slow the telomere shortening. 
Special info
our blog is again selected for top 60 aging blog, by feedspot.com,again my sincere thanks to Mr. Anuj Agarwal and his team.
             Cellinsight.online

The free radical theory of aging


The free radical theory of aging

Dr.Denham Herman a scientific researcher who proposed the 'free radical theory of aging' in the year 1956.according to this theory the process of aging is due to oxidative damage of cell organelles and other cytoplasmic contents by free radicals. intially it was assumed that the free radicals such as ROS(reactive oxygen species) produced during normal respiratory process.The free radical theory got more attention when researchers studied the cause of cancer ,Alzheimer disease,and heart diseases .This theory realises that old age is just another disease,our old age is starting when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) get damaged by free radicals.1970s many scientist involved in Reserch related to this theory and in 1980 J.Miquel clearly explained the mitochondrial involvement in the production of free radicals,the theory is known as mitochondrial theory of free radicals.
The free radical theory of aging
Cell structure
                   Animal cell,inrenal view (mitochondria distributed incytoplasm)

Mitochondria(mitochondrion-singular)

Mitochondria are tiny cellular organelles which are freely distributed in cytoplasm,they are covered with two membranes.The outer membrane is a double phospholipid layer,it covers and protects the inner part of the organelle and the inner one folded many times and forms structures called cristae,the fluid filled inner space of the organelle is called matrix.mitochondria has its own DNA(mtDNA)and ribosomes. mitochondria are often called as power houses of cell,they produce energy and stored in it.The energy that released from metabolic activities are using to convert ADP(adenosine diphosphate)to ATP(adenosine triphospate),when energy utilised ATP will change to ADP.More mitochondria are present in such cells which need more energy,for example muscle cells contain more mitochondria because it needed more energy for muscular activities,the Neuron has the least numer of mitochondria because it's function is to conduct electric impulses to and fro from central nervous system and deferent parts of the body,it need not much energy to work,and RBC( red blood corpacells)has no mitochondria because it need no extra energy to perform it's function,it work as oxygen carriers,the haemoglobin present in the RBC capable of doing the work.Most of the metabolic process is done inside mitochondria with the help of oxygen,this process is also called cellular respiration.
The free radical theory of aging
internal view


Neuro endocrine theory(biological clock) of aging

NEURO ENDOCRINE THEORY OF AGING 
According to Neuro endocrine theory the aging process is happening in hypothalamus,pituitary,and thyroid or the in regulatory action of these glands.Vladimer Dilman an internationally renowned endocrinologist put forward this theory in 1968.He found that there is considerable decline in the production of hormones in our body with increasing age,the secretion of thyroid,adrenel cortex,testis (males),ovary (females),pituitary (growth hormone) etc will falls.The production of aminoacids, peptides,monoamines enzymes etc also will decrease.it is also noted that the functional decline in neurons,
Neuro endocrine theory(biological clock) of aging
Human endocrine system

What are the functions of endocrine glands?

Endocrine system is a group of glands,which produce most of all important hormones for our body.These hormones controls our growth development,moods,metabolism,reproduction etc.
The glands includes Hypothalamus,pituitary,pineal(these3glands situated in brain),thyroid(neck)
Pancreas(behind stomach),thymus(between lungs),adrenals(top of kidneys),testes(male),ovaries (female).Hypothalamus is the main part of endocrine system,it produced hormones such as antiduereti,corticotropin,gonadotropin,oxytoxin,palachin,thyrotrophin etc most of the hormones are instructions to other glands,it also directly commands pituitary gland to increase or decrease a particular hormonal presence in the body especially growth hormone.hypothalamus has direct connection with nervous system.hypothalamus is responsible for thirst,body temperature,hunger,sleep,
Sex drive etc.Pituitary gland is another very important gland which controls all glands of endocrine system,and is often called as master gland.the posterior lobe of pituitary collect some hormones from hypothalamus and distribute to respective glands,also it produced many hormones,such as growth hormone(somatotrophic hormone),proclain lutenizing hormones, antidiuretic hormones,etc.
Pineal gland produced melatonin,this gland is responsible for sleep.thyroid gland produced calcitonine,triiodothyronine,and thyroxin.parathyroid gland release parathyroid hormone when calcium level increases in the body,pancreas released the hormone insulin and glucagon,ovary releases progesterone and estrogen.testes produced testosterone,

Hormonal imbalances,how it affects the body?

If Growth Hormone is too much the bones and body parts grow extensively,on the other hand if it is low growth will stick.if thyroid produce more hormone the result is hyperthyroidism or it is known as
Graves' disease.if the hormone is insufficient the result is slow growth,slow heart rate,weight gain and constipation,the condition is called hypothyroidism.Adrenal insufficiency result in dehydration,abdominal pain, fatigue, weakness,etc.insulin production of pancreas fail the result is diabetics.these are some of the abnormalities happen because of hormonal imbalance.

A research related to anti aging

Some researchers removed the pituitary gland gland of mice,pituitary gland is the master gland which provides many hormones in our boy,the researchers then provide all the known hormones of pituitary to the mice manually,they found that the mice without a pituitary gland live longer than others.finally
They came to the conclusion that pituitary is producing some other hormones that brings life span shorter.

Conclusion 

We are not yet find all the hormones that produced by endocrine system,one thing is sure hormones can alter our body,mind,health,and life span.


Neuro-endocrine theory(biological clock)of aging
Neuron

https://www.cellinsight.online/2020/04/neuro-endocrine-theorybiological-clock.html

Role of protein on ageing


Role of protein on ageing
Protein structure 



Role of protein on aging 

Protein which controls the length of telomere are telomerase and a protein complex known as shelterin.a new study by Scripps Reserch Institute (TSRI) discovered a new protein named as TZAP (telomeric zinc associated protein)which decrease the length of telomeres by trimming,telomere is the clock of a biological cell,if it's length is too short the cell cannot multiply,a human cell can divide maximum 50 times,if it increase more, our life span may increase considerably.
Certain proteins undergo oxidisation which are known to be associated with ageing and some age related diseases,when people turn about 80 approximately half of the bady proteins are damaged due to oxidation,the oxidation occurs because of random chemical degradation,that are associated with convention of food particles to enregy( metabolism) .
Protein's misfoldings are another reason for ageing,when native proteins are synthesised in our cells,which is in helical(Alfa helical)structure and everything fine,but in some cases the proteins produced are misfolded and which are considered as minimum energy state proteins,these proteins are useless or even toxic.these proteins are insoluble in water,where as good proteins are soluble,these misfolded proteins later form a long lenear aggregate known as amyloid diposit,these deposit causes diseases also,for examble Alzheimer's disease.

Human ageing

Old man+O2 = Young man

Cellinsight.online Everything about human ageing and related diseases Old man+O2=young man      " Old man+O2=Young man" don't ...