Monday, June 29, 2020

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases 

Enzymes

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases
How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction



Enzymes are biological catalysts, catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts,positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negative catalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins,made up of long chains of amino acids.Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist Eduard Buchner, he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discovery of cell-free fermentation. He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body (these number may increase because every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical reaction.In 1980 Sidney Altman and Thomas R.Cech found that some RNAs have the ability to catalyze specific bio chemical reactions,these RNAs are called Ribozymes.Ribozymes are made up of nucleic acids not proteins.Both Sidney Altman and Thomas R.Cech were professors of Yale University(USA) and University of Colorado(USA) respectively,they were jointly awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry in the year 1989.So it is cleared that thre are some other biological catalysts also present in our body other than protein based enzymes

.

Digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes are produced by the organs of our digestive system.Amylase and lingual lipase present in saliva, trypsine, pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase are the secretion of pacrease, Deoxynuclease and deoxyribonuclease also produced in pacrease.pepsin produced in the stomach
Amylase: breaks down large starch molecules into smaller sugar molecules.
Lipase: breaks lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
Protease: breaks down proteins in to amino acids.
Trypsine : also breaks down protein
Lactase:(found in small intestine) breaks lactose, the milk sugar into glucose and galactose .
Deoxyribonuclease and Ribonuclease helps to breaks bonds in nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA


Metabolic enzymes

Convertion of food particles to energy,elimination of nitrogenous wastes and convertion of food to building blocks these very important to a living organism. These process are called metabolism , the word 'metabolism' is came from a Greek word metabole means change.A number of enzymes participate in metabolic processes in our body.The enzymes are included in different classes,such as
Oxydoreductases,dehydrogenases,kinases,lyases,lipoxygenases etc.


Enzymatic process

Active site is a specific region of enzyme,substrate binds to that specific region and form enzyme substrate complex,the substrate is then combined with another molecule or broken down to form enzyme product complex,finally enzyme releases the product and return to its original shape and size.These actions are quick,the speed of the reaction is based on turnover number of enzyme.The
turnover number is the number of substrate molecules converted by one molecule of enzyme per second (when enough substrate molecules are present).The turn over number starting from 0.5 to 600000, defferent  enzyme has different turn over numbers.Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH values, an optimum temperature and optimum pH value are necessary for maximum activity,
The optimum temperature is around 98.6 Fahrenheit and most of the enzyme's optimum pH is nearly neutral but pepsin a digestive enzyme work in high aciditic conditions ,its optimum pH value is 2.


Role of enzymes on aging

We know that enzymes are so important,without enzyme no energy no metabolism and even know life.But scientists discovered some adverse effect of enzymes that lead us early aging,immune disorders and diseases like cancer. some examples are given below,


* Thymus a tiny gland,( lies in the chest between lungs and behind sternum) plays an important role in our immune system. It produced some hormones such as melatonine,insuline etc also act as a class room for T cells.T cells are produced in the born marrow but they mature in thymus,there they are trained to recognize antigen.T 
cells protect us from infections , immune disorders, cancer etc.After puberty stage thymus start to shrink slowly and replaced by fatty tissue, this process is called involution, Afer the age of 65 there a scarcity of T cells in our body. some scientists are on the view that thimus involution may be a form of programmed aging.
It is noted that deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension by 30%.What is PAPPA?,pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) is a protein based enzyme that controls the availability of local insuline-like growth factor(IGF).IGF is required for embryonic and post natal growth.A reduced IGF signaling can increase the life span.A study conducted by Dr.AbbĂ© de vellego(University of Pittsburgh school of medicine) and his team on a mouse Shows that thymus gland of the mouse remain intact through out life after deleted the enzyme PAPPA.This discovery give us a little hope that we can restore the functions of thymus in our entire life.

** Professor Shinji Kamada and Taiki Nagamo (Kobe university research team) discovered that certain enzymes such as DAO promote cellular senencese. D-Amino Acid Oxidise (DAO) is an enzyme that catalyse the oxidisation of D-amino acid to amino acid,but at the same time ROS(Reactive Oxygen Species) produced as a by product,the ROS causes DNA damage,cellular senescence(complete arrest of cell growth) and aging.

*** Alzheimer's disease is considered as a hereditary disease, which slowly destroy memory and thinking skill.Beta amyloid plaque is building on and around neurons in brain .A team of reserchers from Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have found that ,the beta amyloid peptide deposits can be reversible by depleting an enzyme BASE1.This Enzyme helping to form beta amyloid peptide .The test was conducted in the brain of mice with Alzheimer's disease.

Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Telomere theory of aging

Telomere theory of aging
Telomere theory of aging was proposed by a Russian scientist A.M.Olovnikov in the year 1971.In the year 1961,an american scientist L.Hayflick  discovered that cultured human cells can only divide up to 50 times.On the basis of this discovery and it's data A.M olovnikov studied more and proposed the telomere theory of aging. According to the theory,when the telomeres (tail end of  chromosome) become too short the cells lose their ability to divide,gradually it lose its efficiency and become aged.After each and every cell division telomeres are unable to be fully copied,therefore they become shorter and shorter.The telomere theory was fully confirmed when an enzyme called telomerase was discovered in 1984,telomerase can maintain the length of telomeres in cancer cells and germ cells,these cells are devoid of aging and they are immortal.The telomere theory of aging got more popularity when three geneticists,Elisabeth Blackburn,Carol Greider and Jack Szostak got Nobel prize in the year 2009 for Physiology or medicine.Their work was based on telomers and telomerase enzyme, Elizabeth Black burn discovered that telomers have a peculiar DNA,she and Jack Szostak proved that the DNA present in telomers prevent chromosome from being brocken drown when cell divides in the year 1982,Elizabeth Black burn and Carol Greider discovered the enzyme telomerase in 1984.

Telomere theory of aging
Location of telomere

TELOMERE

 Telomeres are the tail ends of chromosomes,working as protective cap.They consist of same sequence of bases.Generally there are four bases adinine,guanine,thymine and cytosine in human being the sequence is TTAGGG(thymine-thymine-adinine-guanine-guanine-guanine),this sequence repeated over and over.This sequence is repeated approximately 2500-3000 times and can reach up to 11000-15000 base pairs.Base sequence differs in different animals,for examble In the case of Bombix mori(insect) the base sequence is TTAGG,ascaris(round worm) the sequence is TTAGGC,Plasmodium(Protozoa) the sequence is TTAGGG(T/C), Paramesium(Protozoa)the base sequence is TTGGG(T/G) and so on.In human telomeres are consisted of TTAGGG sequence of bases,here I am talking about one strand only,what about the other strand?,as we know thymine (T) always pairs with adenine(A),and guanine(G) with cytosine (C) so if TTAGGG sequence is on one strand the other strand sequence will be AATCCC,so one section is made up of six base pairs.
It is noted that the length of telomer in WBC (white blood cells) of newborn babies is 8000 base pairs approx ,but in adult the data is 3000 base pairs and in elderly people it will be 1500.Each time cell divide telomere loses 30 to 200 base pairs.Telomere do not shorten in heart muscles cells,because it do not divide continually .

Cell division

All the living organisms that start their life with a single cell.For growth and reproduction, the cell divion is necessary,each parent cell is divides in to two and later, these cells will divide again and this process will continue. There are two types of cell divisions occurs in our body, mitosis and meiosis.The mitosis is the common type which is the process of making new cells in our body,the other one meiosis which makes egg cells and sperm cells.The mitosis cell division is a very critical process, during this the parent cell split in to two identical daughter cells and this process is controlled by a number of genes,eventhough he length of telomeres decreased after each cell division.The other one the meiosis cell division reduces chromasome number by half( 46 to 23),unlike mitosis the end product of meiosis is four daughter cells with 23 chromosomes) these daughter cells should be sperm cells or egg cells.

Medicine available to increase life span
many medicine are available at online for altering telomere's length. For example, TA65®.  This is a patented natural herbal product.The company   Claims "this compound can help to maintain the length of  telomers by activating telomerase enzyme.It can  slow down and possibly,reverse aging". Another one human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT) which is used to diminish telomer's length,you may wonder why should one diminishes telomer's length?, well this is an effective medicicine fort cancer,especially for tumors,you know cancer cells are able to produce excess telomerase so the length of telomere never reduced,they are immortal.hTERT used to diminish telomer's length, and therefore the cells become inactive. This type of medicines manufactured a number of companies in different names and different forms.
Conclusion
Telomere theory of aging is a most popular theory of aging.It is proved that after each and every cell division the length of telomere decreases,it is also noted that telomere shortening is different for every one,when we try to measure,for some people you can see the difference in 3 years and some others it can notice in 5 years depend on health status,stress reduction and healthy habits can help to slow the telomere shortening. 
Special info
our blog is again selected for top 60 aging blog, by feedspot.com,again my sincere thanks to Mr. Anuj Agarwal and his team.
             Cellinsight.online

Sunday, May 10, 2020

The free radical theory of aging


The free radical theory of aging

Dr.Denham Herman a scientific researcher who proposed the 'free radical theory of aging' in the year 1956.according to this theory the process of aging is due to oxidative damage of cell organelles and other cytoplasmic contents by free radicals. intially it was assumed that the free radicals such as ROS(reactive oxygen species) produced during normal respiratory process.The free radical theory got more attention when researchers studied the cause of cancer ,Alzheimer disease,and heart diseases .This theory realises that old age is just another disease,our old age is starting when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) get damaged by free radicals.1970s many scientist involved in Reserch related to this theory and in 1980 J.Miquel clearly explained the mitochondrial involvement in the production of free radicals,the theory is known as mitochondrial theory of free radicals.
The free radical theory of aging
Cell structure
                   Animal cell,inrenal view (mitochondria distributed incytoplasm)

Mitochondria(mitochondrion-singular)

Mitochondria are tiny cellular organelles which are freely distributed in cytoplasm,they are covered with two membranes.The outer membrane is a double phospholipid layer,it covers and protects the inner part of the organelle and the inner one folded many times and forms structures called cristae,the fluid filled inner space of the organelle is called matrix.mitochondria has its own DNA(mtDNA)and ribosomes. mitochondria are often called as power houses of cell,they produce energy and stored in it.The energy that released from metabolic activities are using to convert ADP(adenosine diphosphate)to ATP(adenosine triphospate),when energy utilised ATP will change to ADP.More mitochondria are present in such cells which need more energy,for example muscle cells contain more mitochondria because it needed more energy for muscular activities,the Neuron has the least numer of mitochondria because it's function is to conduct electric impulses to and fro from central nervous system and deferent parts of the body,it need not much energy to work,and RBC( red blood corpacells)has no mitochondria because it need no extra energy to perform it's function,it work as oxygen carriers,the haemoglobin present in the RBC capable of doing the work.Most of the metabolic process is done inside mitochondria with the help of oxygen,this process is also called cellular respiration.
The free radical theory of aging
internal view


Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Neuro endocrine theory(biological clock) of aging

NEURO ENDOCRINE THEORY OF AGING 
According to Neuro endocrine theory the aging process is happening in hypothalamus,pituitary,and thyroid or the in regulatory action of these glands.Vladimer Dilman an internationally renowned endocrinologist put forward this theory in 1968.He found that there is considerable decline in the production of hormones in our body with increasing age,the secretion of thyroid,adrenel cortex,testis (males),ovary (females),pituitary (growth hormone) etc will falls.The production of aminoacids, peptides,monoamines enzymes etc also will decrease.it is also noted that the functional decline in neurons,
Neuro endocrine theory(biological clock) of aging
Human endocrine system

What are the functions of endocrine glands?

Endocrine system is a group of glands,which produce most of all important hormones for our body.These hormones controls our growth development,moods,metabolism,reproduction etc.
The glands includes Hypothalamus,pituitary,pineal(these3glands situated in brain),thyroid(neck)
Pancreas(behind stomach),thymus(between lungs),adrenals(top of kidneys),testes(male),ovaries (female).Hypothalamus is the main part of endocrine system,it produced hormones such as antiduereti,corticotropin,gonadotropin,oxytoxin,palachin,thyrotrophin etc most of the hormones are instructions to other glands,it also directly commands pituitary gland to increase or decrease a particular hormonal presence in the body especially growth hormone.hypothalamus has direct connection with nervous system.hypothalamus is responsible for thirst,body temperature,hunger,sleep,
Sex drive etc.Pituitary gland is another very important gland which controls all glands of endocrine system,and is often called as master gland.the posterior lobe of pituitary collect some hormones from hypothalamus and distribute to respective glands,also it produced many hormones,such as growth hormone(somatotrophic hormone),proclain lutenizing hormones, antidiuretic hormones,etc.
Pineal gland produced melatonin,this gland is responsible for sleep.thyroid gland produced calcitonine,triiodothyronine,and thyroxin.parathyroid gland release parathyroid hormone when calcium level increases in the body,pancreas released the hormone insulin and glucagon,ovary releases progesterone and estrogen.testes produced testosterone,

Hormonal imbalances,how it affects the body?

If Growth Hormone is too much the bones and body parts grow extensively,on the other hand if it is low growth will stick.if thyroid produce more hormone the result is hyperthyroidism or it is known as
Graves' disease.if the hormone is insufficient the result is slow growth,slow heart rate,weight gain and constipation,the condition is called hypothyroidism.Adrenal insufficiency result in dehydration,abdominal pain, fatigue, weakness,etc.insulin production of pancreas fail the result is diabetics.these are some of the abnormalities happen because of hormonal imbalance.

A research related to anti aging

Some researchers removed the pituitary gland gland of mice,pituitary gland is the master gland which provides many hormones in our boy,the researchers then provide all the known hormones of pituitary to the mice manually,they found that the mice without a pituitary gland live longer than others.finally
They came to the conclusion that pituitary is producing some other hormones that brings life span shorter.

Conclusion 

We are not yet find all the hormones that produced by endocrine system,one thing is sure hormones can alter our body,mind,health,and life span.


Neuro-endocrine theory(biological clock)of aging
Neuron

https://www.cellinsight.online/2020/04/neuro-endocrine-theorybiological-clock.html

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Role of protein on ageing


Role of protein on ageing
Protein structure 



Role of protein on aging 

Protein which controls the length of telomere are telomerase and a protein complex known as shelterin.a new study by Scripps Reserch Institute (TSRI) discovered a new protein named as TZAP (telomeric zinc associated protein)which decrease the length of telomeres by trimming,telomere is the clock of a biological cell,if it's length is too short the cell cannot multiply,a human cell can divide maximum 50 times,if it increase more, our life span may increase considerably.
Certain proteins undergo oxidisation which are known to be associated with ageing and some age related diseases,when people turn about 80 approximately half of the bady proteins are damaged due to oxidation,the oxidation occurs because of random chemical degradation,that are associated with convention of food particles to enregy( metabolism) .
Protein's misfoldings are another reason for ageing,when native proteins are synthesised in our cells,which is in helical(Alfa helical)structure and everything fine,but in some cases the proteins produced are misfolded and which are considered as minimum energy state proteins,these proteins are useless or even toxic.these proteins are insoluble in water,where as good proteins are soluble,these misfolded proteins later form a long lenear aggregate known as amyloid diposit,these deposit causes diseases also,for examble Alzheimer's disease.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

HOW THE CORONA VIRUS INFECT HUMAN?


How the Corona virus infect human?
Covid19


How-the-corona-virus-infect-human
Use mask for protection 



WHAT IS CORONA VIRUS?


What-is-corona-virus?
Corona virus

Dear friends ,today the world is under a dangerous pandemic the COVID-19 so-many people dying word wide,so I think it is necessary to write on corona virus,how ever our regular subject remain 'human aging'
Before going the details of corona virus we should know what is viruses,

What is virus?

In1886 Adolf mayor,a German agricultural chemist who first described about a disease,the tobacco mosaic disease,mosaic like appearance on leafs of tobacco plant.later Martinus Beijerich given the name Virus,Virus is a latin word,means a poisonous subsance                                       
Viruses are generally considered as non living things, but they active when enter a host cell.they consist of genetical codes(the RNA or DNA)body is covered  by a protein coat,which is known as. Capsids,in some virus especially in the case of novel corona virus the capsid is covered by two layers of lipids,which is known as envelop.viruses cannot multiply themself,they must enter living cell. When they Come out from a living cell they become inactive,this inactive virus is called as virion,this is responsible for infection.if it did n't get a host cell in certain time period the lipid coating and capsid begins to degrade,then it cannot attach to the host cell

Which are the corona viruses that attacked human?

Corona virus SARS-CoV(sever acute syndrome) is identified in southern China in 2003,MERS-CoV(Middle East respiratory syndrome)identified in Soudi Arabia in 2012,and this is the third one SARS-CoV2,the causativ agent of  the deseas COVID-19 and this virus also fist identified in China in 2019.

How long survive corona virus outside the host cell?

Novel corona virus can survive3 days on stainless steel surfaces and plastic surfaces,it can live on air for hours,one day on card boards and four hour on copper.the virus survive longer time at lower temperature,higher humidity and non porous surfaces like stainless steel.


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Thursday, March 19, 2020

What is protein?

What is protein?


Protein is the basic components of living cells,it made of carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen and one or more chain of amino acids.Like carbohydrate and fats protein is a macro nutrient it is commonly available in animal products,eggs, meat, milk,yoghurt etc,it also available in beens, nuts,legumes etc.Proteins makeup 15 % of a person's body weight

 According to their structure there are three types of proteins are there,they are fibrous, globular,and membrane.Fibrous proteins forms muscle fibre,bones,connetive tissues and tendons,eg;actin,myosin,karatin.Globular protein is water soluble,they have so many functions in our body such as transporting,catalysing,and regulating ,eg; albumin,alphaglobin,hemoglobin etc.

 According to their functions proteins are catagarised to eight groups,they are hormones, defensive proteins, enzymatic proteins,transport proteins,structural proteins,storage proteins,receptor proteins and contractile proteins.

Hormones: are protein based secretion of endocrine glands,which affect curtain cells in our body,those cells have specific receptor to accommodate proteins,on which the hormones attach them self.such cells are known as target cells.From hormone the cell got signals. For example insulin secreted by pancreas used to control sugar level

Defensive proteins: antibodies the important part of our immune system is a defensive protein which is produced in white blood cells(WBC) attack foreign bodies such as bacteria,virus etc that enter in our body and make them inactive.

Enzymatic hormones: which accelerate metabolic processes in our body,facilitate in liver function direction,glycogen convertion etc

Transport protein: these protein carries vital materials to cells ,for example hemoglobin carries oxygen from lungs and distribute to tissues 

Structural protein: Collagen,karatin and elastin are structural protein,collagen forms the collective frame work of our muscles,skin,bones and cartilages.karatin is the structural component of hair,teath,nails and skin etc

Storage protein: these proteins are storing meral ions,eg; iron,potassium etc.Iron storage in R.B.C(red blood cells) is controlled by a storage protein called ferritin.Ovalbumin and casein also examples of storage proteteins.

Receptor proteins: it controls the the materials that enter and leaves the cell, it always located in outer part of a cell,some of the receptors activate enzymes and other used to stimulate endocrine glands to produce epinephrine and insulin.

Contractile protein: these are muscle regulates,which regulate srength and speed of the muscles on our body including heart muscles eg actin,myocin

Hey friends,l think you understand what is protein and its importants in living organism, one more thing, the researchers found that protein foldings are decreasing when we get old. ahttps://cellinsight.blogspot.com/2020/03/why-we-are-getting-old.html 

                               Tanks
                                           john

What-is-protein
Protein rich food-1
Protein-rich-food
Protein rich food-2

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Why we are getting old?

How we are getting old?

The answer is simple,the 'errors'.the  errors that happening during cell multiplicaton and by the influences of external factors.so many changes happens in DNA every year,most important one is the shortening of telomers,a telomere is the tail end of chromosome  The free radical theory of aging,which developed in 1950s,says that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during mitochondrial function react with their DNA(mtDNA) and other cell organalls make sever cdamage and decline in mitochondrial function that leads to aging,ROS is produced when mitochondria makes energy,when you eat more the mitochondria produce more energy at the same time more ROS also produce,so eating less can increase life span to an extent.

In 1961 an american scientist L.Hayflick discovered that human cells have limited capacity to divided,after 50 cell divions the cell not able to divide again,this limit is called Hayflck limit,the cell gradually lose its efficiency and is said to be aged.Later A.M Olovnikov proposed the Telomere theory of aging,telomers are the the end segments of chromosome,which protect chromasome,the theory says after each cell divition the length of telomers become shorter and shorter,when it is too short cell can not divide.when we born the length of telomers in our white blood cells (W.B.C) is 8000 base pairs but when we become elder the length will bev 1500 base pairs only.


According to neuro endocrine theory age changes happend in hypothalamus,pituitary,and thyroid glands or by the combined action of these glands.Aging associated with the decreased production of certain hormones and also the functional decline of neurons.



Our cells also subjects to DNA mythilation,this involve adding a methyl group(a carbon and 3 hydrogen atoms),to the area of DNA which sets this area of gene in to off mode,then the particular function will not work,if we examin how much DNA is methylated then we can estimate their biological age,some genes may also hypermethylated with age causing them to loose some functions such as estrogen receptor another reason is the environmental damage to DNA,proteins and fats,after the age of 20 humans produce 1% less collagen in the skin each year,result in skin becoming more and more brittle.80% of skin wrinkling happens because of UV radiation from sunlight.

In the case of a well known human disease called Werner's Syndrome,a mutated gene cause people older in their teen age,the mutated gene supposed to be involved in DNA maintain function,so we have to focus on DNA repair related gene,mRNA,proteins  Dear friends, these are some of the reasons that scientists explained but exact reason not yet known ,you give me whatever you know about it plz,l need a lot of information from the entire world in this regard                                     

         
Why we are getting old?


Old-age

Human ageing

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases  Enzymes How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction Enzymes are biological cat...