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Showing posts from June, 2020

Human ageing

Apoptosis and Necrosis, are they acceletate aging? Everything about human ageing and related diseases Apoptosis and necrosis are they accelerate aging? apoptosis Apoptosis is programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a Greek word means "falling off".In a multicellular organism if cells are no longer needed,or it's DNA damaged and cannot be repaired,then the cells commits suicide by a process called programmed cell death or the Apoptosis. In human beings billions of cells die in bone marrow and intestine every hour .since 19th century scientists noticed and described about apoptosis but a clear definition was given by John Foxton Kerr at the university of Queensland in 1972.Later Hovitz,Sydney Brenner,and John E Samson identified the genes involved in apoptosis. In 2002  they got Nobel prize in medicine  Apoptosis and necrosis In our body,cells are produced by cell multiplication (mitosis) and the apoptosis is used to the destruction of cells. Around 100,000 cells are produced in our body per second and

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases  Enzymes How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction Enzymes are biological catalysts , catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts, positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negative catalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins ,made up of long chains of amino acids .Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist Eduard Buchner , he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discovery of cell-free fermentation . He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body ( these number may increase because every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical r

Telomere theory of aging

Telomere theory of aging Telomere theory of aging was proposed by a Russian scientist A.M.Olovnikov in the year 1971.In the year 1961,an american scientist  L.Hayflick   discovered that cultured human cells can only divide up to 50 times.On the basis of this discovery and it's data A.M olovnikov studied more and proposed the telomere theory of aging. According to the theory,when the telomeres ( tail end of  chromosome ) become too short the cells lose their ability to divide,gradually it lose its efficiency and become aged.After each and every cell division  telomeres are unable to be fully copied,therefore they become shorter and shorter.The telomere theory was fully confirmed when an enzyme called telomerase was discovered in 1984, telomerase can maintain the length of telomeres in cancer cells and germ cells ,these cells are devoid of aging and they are immortal.The telomere theory of aging got more popularity when three geneticists, Elisabeth Blackburn,Carol Greider an