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Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases Enzymes

Enzymes are biological catalysts, catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts,positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negativecatalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins,made up of long chains of amino acids.Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist EduardBuchner, he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discoveryof cell-free fermentation. He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body (these number may increasebecause every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical reaction.In 1980 SidneyAltman and ThomasR.Cech found that some RNAs have the ab…

Telomere theory of aging

Telomere theory of aging Telomere theory of aging was proposed by a Russian scientist A.M.Olovnikov in the year 1971.In the year 1961,an american scientist L.Hayflick  discovered that cultured human cells can only divide up to 50 times.On the basis of this discovery and it's data A.M olovnikov studied more and proposed the telomere theory of aging. According to the theory,when the telomeres (tail end of  chromosome) become too short the cells lose their ability to divide,gradually it lose its efficiency and become aged.After each and every cell division telomeres are unable to be fully copied,therefore they become shorter and shorter.The telomere theory was fully confirmed when an enzyme called telomerase was discovered in 1984,telomerase can maintain the length of telomeres in cancer cells and germ cells,these cells are devoid of aging and they are immortal.The telomere theory of aging got more popularity when three geneticists,Elisabeth Blackburn,Carol Greider and Jack Szostak g…