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Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases .

Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases Enzymes

Enzymes are biological catalysts, catalysts are those substances which can alter the speed of chemical reactions.There are positive and negative catalysts,positive catalysts speed up chemical reactions where as negativecatalysts decreases the rate of chemical reactions.Enzymes are positive catalysts, which accelerate chemical reactions in our body.Enzymes are basically proteins,made up of long chains of amino acids.Enzymes are discovered in 1897 by a German biochemist EduardBuchner, he got Nobel prize in chemistry in 1907 for his discoveryof cell-free fermentation. He showed that an enzyme named zymase extracted from yeast cells can break up sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.There are about 40,000 different enzymes present in our body (these number may increasebecause every day new enzymes are discovering )each enzyme catalyze a different chemical reaction.In 1980 SidneyAltman and ThomasR.Cech found that some RNAs have the ab…

Telomere theory of aging

Telomere theory of aging Telomere theory of aging was proposed by a Russian scientist A.M.Olovnikov in the year 1971.In the year 1961,an american scientist L.Hayflick  discovered that cultured human cells can only divide up to 50 times.On the basis of this discovery and it's data A.M olovnikov studied more and proposed the telomere theory of aging. According to the theory,when the telomeres (tail end of  chromosome) become too short the cells lose their ability to divide,gradually it lose its efficiency and become aged.After each and every cell division telomeres are unable to be fully copied,therefore they become shorter and shorter.The telomere theory was fully confirmed when an enzyme called telomerase was discovered in 1984,telomerase can maintain the length of telomeres in cancer cells and germ cells,these cells are devoid of aging and they are immortal.The telomere theory of aging got more popularity when three geneticists,Elisabeth Blackburn,Carol Greider and Jack Szostak g…

The free radical theory of aging

The free radical theory of aging Dr.Denham Herman a scientific researcher who proposed the 'free radical theory ofaging' in the year 1956.according to this theory the process of aging is due to oxidative damage of cell organelles and other cytoplasmic contents by free radicals. intially it was assumed that the free radicals such as ROS(reactive oxygen species) produced during normal respiratory process.The free radical theory got more attention when researchers studied the cause of cancer ,Alzheimer disease,and heart diseases .This theory realises that old age is just another disease,our old age is starting when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) get damaged by free radicals.1970s many scientist involved in Reserch related to this theory and in 1980 J.Miquel clearly explained the mitochondrial involvement in the production of free radicals,the theory is known as mitochondrial theory of free radicals.                    Animal cell,inrenal view (mitochondria distributed incytoplasm)

Mit…

Neuro endocrine theory(biological clock) of aging

NEURO ENDOCRINE THEORY OF AGING 
According to Neuro endocrine theory the aging process is happening in hypothalamus,pituitary,and thyroid or the in regulatory action of these glands.Vladimer Dilman an internationally renowned endocrinologist put forward this theory in 1968.He found that there is considerable decline in the production of hormones in our body with increasing age,the secretion of thyroid,adrenel cortex,testis (males),ovary (females),pituitary (growth hormone) etc will falls.The production of aminoacids, peptides,monoamines enzymes etc also will decrease.it is also noted that the functional decline in neurons,

What are the functions of endocrine glands? Endocrine system is a group of glands,which produce most of all important hormones for our body.These hormones controls our growth development,moods,metabolism,reproduction etc. The glands includes Hypothalamus,pituitary,pineal(these3glands situated in brain),thyroid(neck) Pancreas(behind stomach),thymus(between lungs),adr…

Role of protein on ageing

Role of protein on aging Protein which controls the length of telomere are telomerase and a protein complex known as shelterin.a new study by Scripps Reserch Institute (TSRI) discovered a new protein named as TZAP (telomeric zinc associated protein)which decrease the length of telomeres by trimming,telomere is the clock of a biological cell,if it's length is too short the cell cannot multiply,a human cell can divide maximum 50 times,if it increase more, our life span may increase considerably.
Certain proteins undergo oxidisation which are known to be associated with ageing and some age related diseases,when people turn about 80 approximately half of the bady proteins are damaged due to oxidation,the oxidation occurs because of random chemical degradation,that are associated with convention of food particles to enregy( metabolism) .
Protein's misfoldings are another reason for ageing,when native proteins are synthesised in our cells,which is in helical(Alfa helical)structure and…

HOW THE CORONA VIRUS INFECT HUMAN?

WHAT IS CORONA VIRUS?

Dear friends ,today the world is under a dangerous pandemic the COVID-19 so-many people dying word wide,so I think it is necessary to write on corona virus,how ever our regular subject remain 'human aging'
Before going the details of corona virus we should know what is viruses,
What is virus?In1886 Adolf mayor,a German agricultural chemist who first described about a disease,the tobacco mosaic disease,mosaic like appearance on leafs of tobacco plant.later Martinus Beijerich given the name Virus,Virus is a latin word,means a poisonous subsance                                        Viruses are generally considered as non living things, but they active when enter a host cell.they consist of genetical codes(the RNA or DNA)body is covered  by a protein coat,which is known as. Capsids,in some virus especially in the case of novel corona virus the capsid is covered by two layers of lipids,which is known as envelop.viruses cannot multiply themself,they must enter living cell. When they…

What is protein?

What is protein?
Protein is the basic components of living cells,it made of carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen and one or more chain of amino acids.Like carbohydrate and fats protein is a macro nutrient it is commonly available in animal products,eggs, meat, milk,yoghurt etc,it also available in beens, nuts,legumes etc.Proteins makeup 15 % of a person's body weight  According to their structure there are three types of proteins are there,they are fibrous, globular,and membrane.Fibrous proteins forms muscle fibre,bones,connetive tissues and tendons,eg;actin,myosin,karatin.Globular protein is water soluble,they have so many functions in our body such as transporting,catalysing,and regulating ,eg; albumin,alphaglobin,hemoglobin etc.  According to their functions proteins are catagarised to eight groups,they are hormones, defensive proteins, enzymatic proteins,transport proteins,structural proteins,storage proteins,receptor proteins and contractile proteins. Hormones: are protein based secretion o…

Why we are getting old?

Why we are getting old?

The answer is simple,the 'errors'.The errors that happening during cell multiplication and by the influences of external factors.So Many changes happens in DNA every year,most important one is the shortening of telomeres.A telomere is the tail end of chromasome.The free radical theory of -ageing, which devolved in1950 says that the reactive oxygen species(ROS)  produced during mitochondrial functions react with their DNA (mtDNA)  and other cell organelles, makes sever damage and declined mitochondrial functions that leads us to aging.ROS is produced when mitochondria make energy from food particles,when we eat more the mitochondria produce more energy and more ROS also evolved as by product.So having a comparatively limited amount of diet may be better to increase life span
In the year 1961 an American scientist L.Hayflick discovered that human cells have limited capacity to divide.Human cells are not able to divide again after 50 cell divisions,this cond…