Effects of enzymes on aging and related diseases
|How enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction|
Lactase:(found in small intestine) breaks lactose, the milk sugar into glucose and galactose .
Deoxyribonuclease and Ribonuclease helps to breaks bonds in nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA
Enzymatic processActive site is a specific region of enzyme,substrate binds to that specific region and form enzyme substrate complex,the substrate is then combined with another molecule or broken down to form enzyme product complex,finally enzyme releases the product and return to its original shape and size.These actions are quick,the speed of the reaction is based on turnover number of enzyme.The
turnover number is the number of substrate molecules converted by one molecule of enzyme per second (when enough substrate molecules are present).The turn over number starting from 0.5 to 600000, defferent enzyme has different turn over numbers.Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH values, an optimum temperature and optimum pH value are necessary for maximum activity,
The optimum temperature is around 98.6 Fahrenheit and most of the enzyme's optimum pH is nearly neutral but pepsin a digestive enzyme work in high aciditic conditions ,its optimum pH value is 2.
Role of enzymes on agingWe know that enzymes are so important,without enzyme no energy no metabolism and even know life.But scientists discovered some adverse effect of enzymes that lead us early aging,immune disorders and diseases like cancer. some examples are given below,
* Thymus a tiny gland,( lies in the chest between lungs and behind sternum) plays an important role in our immune system. It produced some hormones such as melatonine,insuline etc also act as a class room for T cells.T cells are produced in the born marrow but they mature in thymus,there they are trained to recognize antigen.T cells protect us from infections , immune disorders, cancer etc.After puberty stage thymus start to shrink slowly and replaced by fatty tissue, this process is called involution, Afer the age of 65 there a scarcity of T cells in our body. some scientists are on the view that thimus involution may be a form of programmed aging.
It is noted that deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension by 30%.What is PAPPA?,pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) is a protein based enzyme that controls the availability of local insuline-like growth factor(IGF).IGF is required for embryonic and post natal growth.A reduced IGF signaling can increase the life span.A study conducted by Dr.Abbé de vellego(University of Pittsburgh school of medicine) and his team on a mouse Shows that thymus gland of the mouse remain intact through out life after deleted the enzyme PAPPA.This discovery give us a little hope that we can restore the functions of thymus in our entire life.
** Professor Shinji Kamada and Taiki Nagamo (Kobe university research team) discovered that certain enzymes such as DAO promote cellular senencese. D-Amino Acid Oxidise (DAO) is an enzyme that catalyse the oxidisation of D-amino acid to amino acid,but at the same time ROS(Reactive Oxygen Species) produced as a by product,the ROS causes DNA damage,cellular senescence(complete arrest of cell growth) and aging.
*** Alzheimer's disease is considered as a hereditary disease, which slowly destroy memory and thinking skill.Beta amyloid plaque is building on and around neurons in brain .A team of reserchers from Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute have found that ,the beta amyloid peptide deposits can be reversible by depleting an enzyme BASE1.This Enzyme helping to form beta amyloid peptide .The test was conducted in the brain of mice with Alzheimer's disease.
Enzymes catalyse thousands of chemical reactions in our body every day. Enzymatic reactions can be noticed in digestion,respiration, reproduction,blood coagulation, and more.production of enzymes declined as we age.we have limited knowledge about enzymes and their activities in our body.we should focus on enzymes to find a proper solution to control aging and related diseases, I hope it is possible in near future.